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Leadership

Leadership–occurs when particular individuals exert influence on goal achievement of others in organizational context> Strategic leadership refers to leader’s “ability to anticipate, envision, maintain flexibility, think strategically, and work with others to initiate changes that will create a viable future in the organization. Research on leadership traits> traits are personal characteristics of the individual, including physical characteristics, intellectual ability, and personality. Research has shown that many traits are not associated with whether people become traders.

Research also shows that some traits are associated with leadership (intelligence, energy, self confidence, dominance, motivation to lead, emotional stability, honesty, integrity, need for achievement) –Limitations to trait approach- difficult to determine whether traits make the leader or whether leadership helps develop the traits, also failure to take into account the situation in which leadership occurs>>>>> Trait approach mainly concerned with what leaders bring to a group setting, does not consider what leaders do In a group setting Consideration Is the extent to which a leader is approachable and shows personal concern for employees- friendly and considerate. Initiating structure is the degree to which a leader concentrates on group goal attainment>clearly defines and organizes his role and role of followers, stresses standard procedures, schedules work to be done, and assigns employees tasks.. Research shows that consideration and Initiating structure both contribute positively to employee motivation, Job satisfaction, leader effectiveness.

Consideration tends to be more strongly related to follower satisfaction, motivation, leader effectives, Initiating structure more strongly related o Job performance and group performance (when high degree of pressure due to deadlines etc, Initiating structure Increases satisfaction+performance>>when task Is intrinsically satisfying, the need for high consideration and high structure Is reduced>> when goals and method of Job are very clear and certain, consideration promotes satisfaction, while structure promotes when employees lack knowledge, or Job Is vague, consideration becomes less Important while structure Is more)— –Leader reward behavior provides employees with compliments, tangible benefits, deserved attention>when these rewards are intention on performance, employees should perform at high level and have high satisfaction. Leader punishment belabor Involves use of reprimands and withholds awards. Research shows that contingent punishment behavior related to favorable employee perceptions, attitudes, behaviors. Leadership By adamant setting, does not consider what leaders do in a group setting Consideration is the assigns employees tasks..

Research shows that consideration and initiating structure satisfaction, motivation, leader effectives, initiating structure more strongly related deadlines etc, initiating structure increases satisfaction+performance>>when task is intrinsically satisfying, the need for high consideration and high structure is promotes satisfaction, while structure promotes dissatisfaction>> when employees lack knowledge, or Job is vague, consideration becomes less important while structure is more)———————Leader reward behavior provides employees with compliments, tangible benefits, deserved attention>when these rewards are satisfaction. Leader punishment behavior involves use of reprimands and withholds