acing the Entrepreneurial Challenge 12. Leading the Diverse Workforce 13. Leading Change and Innovation and Transforming Organizations Strengths and Weaknesses as a Leader Trait Theory – Leader as a “Big Man” People inherit traits that make them better suited for leadership Identifies certain behavioral or personality characteristics that are shared by leaders Early Traits – self awareness, emotional intelligence, social skills, drive, integrity, self-regulation, knowledge of the business More recent traits – self-confidence, charisma, honesty, Based on the belief that leaders are MADE not BORN Opposite of trait theory and Great Man theories Focuses on actions of leaders
The Blake Mouton Grid – Concern for people vs.. Concern for production (strive for the middle of the road) Orientation to Task vs.. Orientation to People Chart *Behavioral theory is very situation dependent which is a problem in the theory Situational Theories 1 . Fiddler’s Least Preferred Co-worker (Cognitive Resource theory) Stress is the enemy of rationality Theory focuses on the influence of the leader’s intelligence and experience on his/her reaction to stress Group effectiveness depends on an appropriate match between: Leader and Members relations Task structure Position Power Measures least preferred coworker Engineer Job to fit manager (not the other way around) 2.
Path Goal Theory Leader must help increase expectancies by facilitating the paths to pay offs Clarifying expectations Reducing barriers to attaining rewards 4 Styles Task – lets followers know what is expected of them and tells them how to perform their tasks Supportive – shows concern for followers well being and is very empathetic Participative – leaders consult with followers and ask for their suggestions before making a decision Achievement – sets challenging goals for followers, expects them to perform at their highest level and shows confidence in heir ability to meet these expectations Choose a style that meets the needs and characteristics of leader and followers given the task and environment they are working in *differs from Fiddler’s in that leadership style changes to fit the task 3.
Life Cycle Theory No single best style of leadership Effective leadership is task relevant and leaders must adapt their style depending on the situation and maturity of group members Combo of task behavior and relationship behavior Telling (one way communication Selling (two way communication) Participating (less task behavior and more relationship behavior) Delegating responsibility has been passed to the group) 4 levels of maturity (Very capable and confident 0 unable and insecure) Developing people and self-motivation Low competence low commitment 0 High competence, High Commitment Emotional Intelligence – the ability to understand your own and others emotions 1 .
Self-Awareness (Self-confidence) 2. Self-Management (Self-control) 3. Social Awareness (Empathy) 4. Social Skills 6 Leadership Styles 1 . Coaching – “try this” develops people for the future 2. Coercive – “do what I tell you” – demand immediate compliance 3. Authoritative “Come with me” – mobiles the am toward a common vision and focuses on end goals, leaving the means up to each individual 4. Affiliated – “people come first” – create emotional bonds that bring a feeling of bonding and belonging to the organization 5. Democratic – “what do you think” – make the final decisions, but they include team members in the decision- making process. 6.
Pace-setting – “Do as I do now’ – leader expects self direction and quick results Cultural Awareness – a mindset where the individual pays careful attention to their own culture and to other’s and is generally accepting of differences Leading from the Top Down Charismatic Leader Has a vision Willing to take personal risk Sensitive to followers needs May engage in unconventional behavior Dark Side of Charismatic Leadership Narcissism – insatiable need for personal recognition Leadership derailment – accomplish personal goals first Machiavellian – power for its own sake Emotional illiteracy – low emotional intelligence Warning Signs of Dysfunctional Leadership Limited or unrealistic self-awareness Lack of attainment to new realities Preference for self-oriented fantasies Limited or poor personal adaptive capacity
Behaviors drive by limited and unchallenged mental models Lack of critical thinking skills Inability to see the bigger picture Poor emotional intelligence Transformational Leadership change the organization’s culture and strategies so that it fits better with may be charismatic – personality trait FOCUS ON VISION communicate the vision and bring the vision to life through stories/symbols model the vision build commitment to the vision Servant Leadership serve your followers, help them to become healthier, wiser, freer and focus on welfare of others humble, value-driven and ethical approach motional and moral concern for followers Authentic Leadership based on your life story – hurdles and challenges are very influential be yourself come from your own values and beliefs Leadership from the Bottom Up **Success is correlated with how quickly management makes contact with the workers and how quickly workers see the problem The Spiral of Despair Hope – workers are energize/committed Despair – workers feel frustrated Apathy – workers feel alienated Anger – workers feel rejected Grassroots Leadership Lead by example Listen aggressively Communicate purpose and meaning Create climate of trust
Go beyond standard operating procedure Build up your people and strengthen others Cultivate quality of life Generate unity The Balcony Perspective Take yourself out of the situation and be an observer and then move back into it as a participant Switch roles to get better perspectives Be open Leader Follower Relationships Social exchange relationship – leader receives status, esteem, and influence when achieves goal Leader needs to manage emotions of follower and model accepting responsibility for successes and failures LAM Theory Develop separate exchange relationships with each of their followers In group – given teeter assignments, more communication Out group – limited/distant relationships, alienated Characteristics of Effective Followers Volunteer to handle tasks or help accomplish goals Willingly accept assignments Exhibit loyalty to group Offer suggestions Understand where your leader is leading you Work effectively as a team member Maintain a positive attitude Communicate up and down the org. Chart Types of Difficult Bosses 1. The Slacker 2. The Land Mine 3. The Egomaniac 4.
The Michael Scott Strategies for Managing a Difficult Boss Try in a non-confrontational way to get the boss to change his behavior Build on legislations with other, particularly those higher Make sure relationships with the boss doesn’t dominate Document Conduct yourself professionally Types of Followers Kelly Typology – Exemplary, conformist, passive, alienated, pragmatist Salesman Typology – isolate, bystander, participant, activist Advice to Followers be prepared to speak up and complement the leaders skills/ideas support leader’s agenda be prepared to deal with ambiguity be thoughtful about timing of contributions be reflective and enthusiastic about potential changes Be authentic Make sure your followers feel important and significant
Help followers be excited and make them feel like they belong Power Sources of Power Position – authority Personal – expertise, charisma Resource based and information based networks Dark Sides of Power – coping with uncertainty Linkages -informal taking advantage for one’s personal gain having characteristics that make it more likely to abuse power having followers who facilitate this through their silence, agreement and compliance Currencies for Securing Power Inspiration – vision excellence Task – resources, assistance Position – advancement, recognition Relationships – inclusion, personal support Personal – self-concept, challenge Network Characteristics Types of People Types of Relationships Links to Key Networks Leading a Team to Success Challenges of Leading Teams Team members must learn how to explore others’ points of view Confront and use conflict productively Influence others through reference to interests Recognize and overcome identity threats Leading a Team Effectively *provide training for employees and leaders *Build the right culture Create a Compelling direction Create enabling structures and systems to support teams Provide coaching for tram on how to work well together
Anchor the negotiation Set the tone Influence others perceptions Take control Recognize the game being played Offer Considerations Informational – if you know the other party bottom line, make a reasonable offer to it Relational – use your experience with the other party to incorporate their expectations into your offer Cultural – recognize and follow rituals that govern opening Options for Dealing with Interests Expand the pie Exploit differences in time and risk Compensate the other Focus on interests – reformulate the problem Leading by Negotiating Effectively PLAN – identify alternatives, BATAAN, interests, bargaining range NEGOTIATE – generate options, review your problem solving process, generate an agreement, plan for implementation, review the negotiation and make adjustments Managing Time and Projects Project Temporary and Unique Overall Project Management Steps 1. Determine the scope 2. Determine available resources 3. Check the timeline 4. Assemble your project team 5. Plan 6.
Act Crisis and Crisis Management Crisis – situation at a critical face where dramatic intervention is needed to avoid major damage and restore situation Crisis management- pre-established activities and guidelines for the preparing and responding to catastrophic events in a safe/effective manner Ability to react flexibly Prep for worst case scenario Prevention is most important Stages of Crisis Pre Crisis 0 Acute Crisis 0 Post Crisis Preparation is Critical Anticipate problems and allocate resources to monitor the environment Audit internal and external Cultivate relationships with the media Create a crisis plan and test it Train the company spokes people A Good Communication Strategy How quickly to respond The nature/content of the message Who will deliver it Communicate!
Follow up with new media How Diversity Initiative Succeed Supportive work environment Sustain the commitment to diversity Abstain commitment from leaders and managers Effective Leadership Behaviors Learn and support each individual’s professional aspirations Create opportunities to expose highly talented employees to leaders Create cross-functional teams Talk with your staff about how they prefer to be managed and rewarded Evaluate performance objectively Consider individual needs when enforcing company policies Context: Ukraine- new market, need strong ruler Cultural context- formal or informal Subsidiary- different languages spoken Economic growth Regardless of where they are: still need Emotional intelligence Problem solving skills People to people interaction camaraderie Keller: negative traits: couldn’t manage Brood’s, micro manager, lack of specific dieback, has issues with emotional intelligence (abrasive with Brood’s), not good in teamwork situations, waited to address problems Brood’s: negative traits: couldn’t adapt to the work environment, too distant for work culture, too detail oriented, no relationship with the clients in a consumer-based industry, lacks fit with company, unwilling to change, doesn’t work well with employees, no reflective about leadership -?huge- doesn’t take criticism well What to do? Brood’s needs to tailor himself to the boss’s style Keller needs to have emotional intelligence