Leadership is the process of influencing others to willingly direct their efforts towards the attainment of group or org goals. Key elements: Influence, intention, personal responsibility and Integrity, change, shared purpose and followers. Old paradigm: stability, control, competition, uniformity, self-centered, hero. New paradigm: change and crawls MGM. Empowerment, collaboration, diversity, and higher ethical purpose, humble. Difference In leadership and MGM: 5 elements crucial to organizational performance – providing direction, aligning followers, building relationships, evolving personal qualities, creating leader outcomes. Major approaches: great man theories, traits theories, behavioral theories, contingency theories, influence theories, relational theories. Leadership evolution model (scope/ environment) C] Great person theory, rational MGM, team/ lateral leadership, learning leadership. Traits leadership Mitt traits: (1) optimism,self confidence, (2) honesty and Integrity, (3) drive. Behavioral Approaches: Auto vs. democratic leader autocratic leader has followers whose performance less satisfactory, university of IOWA – leadership continuum on degree of employee articulation based on time/ expertise of followers.
Ohio State 0 initiating structure vs. consideration. University of Michigan (similar) 0 employee centered vs. job centered leadership (can only have one distinct style). Leadership grid (university of Texas) 0 team MGM (9,91 impoverished (1 , 11 country club MGM (1,9), middle of the road (5,5), authority compliance MGM (9,1) Individualized leadership: look at each r/s BTW leader and follower C] Step 1 : Vertical dyad linkage model, Steps: Leader member exchange (LIMIT Step 3: partnership building. Entrepreneurial leadership – operational role, elaborative and advisory role.
Contingency approach; Looks at situational variables (tasks, structure, context, environment) and nature of followers (needs, maturity, cohesiveness, training). 4 behavioral approaches: high task low r/s C] authoritative style, high task high r/s D coaching towards achievement style, low task low r/s 0 delegating style, low task high r/s CLC participative style. Fiddler’s contingency model: leadership style can be r/s or task oriented based on his results/ description in the LIP. Situation: member relations, structure, position power. Task oriented performed bet in highly favorable/ unfavorable.
Hershey and Blanchard Model: Leadership style adjusted based on followers readiness level/ maturity. Low maturity (unable unwilling) CLC telling style, moderate (willing unable) 0 selling style, high maturity (able but unwilling) D participating style, very high C] delegating. Path goal theory: leader’s responsibility Is to Increase subordinates motivation to attain personal and org goals by either (1) clarifying the follower’s path to the rewards that are available or (2) increasing the rewards that the follower oriented, participative. Situational contingency: personal characteristics of members, ND work environment.
Use for rewards to match behavior with each situation: followers lack confidence 0 supportive, ambiguous Job 0 directive, lack of Job challenge 0 achievement oriented, incorrect rewards given 0 Participative. Broom Ago Contingency model: focus on varying degree of participative leadership: each with varying influence on quality and accountability of decisions. (leadership participative style: decide, consult individually, consult IGRP, facilitate or delegate 0 based on set of diagnostic questions to analyses decision situation and series of decision rules.
Diagnostic questions: decision significance, leader expertise, importance of commitment from subordinates to carry out decision, likelihood of commitment by subordinates, group support for goals, team expertise, team competence. Decision style based on two key criteria: concern for time constraints/ followers development. Substitutes for leadership: organizational (group cohesiveness sub TO and POP), formalization (sub TO), inflexibility neutralist TO, low position power Neutralist both), task characteristics (highly structured tasks sub for TO, automatic feedback sub for
TO, intrinsic satisfaction sub for POP), followers characteristics (professionalism sub for both, training/experience sub for TO, low value on rewards neutralist TO and Fellowship Leadership and followers 0 dualism/ reciprocity. Styles of followers (bases on independent critical thinking/ passive or active) 0 alienated follower (“P), conformist (U/A), Pragmatic (have qualities of all), passive follower (I-JIB), effective (IA). Demands on effective follower: courage to accept responsibility, participate change, challenge authority, leave the organization when needed, serve org needs.
Developing personal potential: from dependence to independence: be proactive, have the end in mind, put first things first, independence to interdependence: think win win, seek to understand then be understood, synergies, sharpen the saw. What leader want from followers; a make it happen attitude, motivation to stay up to date, willingness to collaborate, passion to drive own growth than depend on leader, Strategies for managing up: (1) be a resource to the leader, (2) help leader be a better leader, (3) develop good r/s with leader (4) view leader realistically.
How followers be effective: learning to manage upwards, develop effective r/s with leaders. Three ways for leaders to enhance abilities and contributions of followers: (1) offer clarity in direction, (2) feedback, (3) coaching (directive/ supportive) Social responsibility Corporate governance Stakeholder theory (primary vs. secondary stakeholders) 0 stakeholders provide resources to firm that can be critical to their success, and hence firms need to develop good away r/s with them since stakeholders have power over firms.
Ethical misconduct 0 lost faith in stakeholders hence importance in fostering responsible session making (hooking conditions, environmental concerns, product safety). analyses their powers and ties with org, and assessment of firm’s effect on these groups (2) the distribution of this info throughout the firm (use them to communicate firm’s code of ethics on acceptance/ unacceptable behavior and (3) the responsiveness of the org as a whole to this info (initiatives that abides/ exceeds expectations on stakeholder groups) Legal and economic responsibility is generally accepted as most mitt determinants of performance.
Profits no longer main goal of he firm, when a business also cares bat the wellbeing of stakeholders, it earns the trusts and cooperation that will ultimately reduce costs and increase productivity. Only if firms make ethical concerns a part of their foundation and incorporate ethics into their business strategies can social responsibility as a concept be embedded into daily decision making the way it is. Levels of social responsibility – economic, legal, ethical, philanthropic 0 corporate citizenship with 4 interrelated dimensions – strong sustained economic performance, rigorous compliance, ethical actions beyond what he law requires, and voluntary contributions that advances the reputation and stakeholder commitment to the org Corporate governance provides formalized responsibility to stakeholders. Increased pressure on oversight, control and accountability. Ethical decision making Ethical decision-making process in business includes ethical issue intensity, opportunity, individual factors and org factors such as corporate culture.
All these interrelated factors influences the evaluation of and intentions behind the decisions that produces ethical or unethical behavior. This model does not describe how to sake ethical decisions but helps understand the factors and processes related to ethical decision-making. 2 major approaches to corporate governance (1) shareholders model, (2) stakeholders’ model. Shareholders model: include the goal of maximizing wealth for shareholders, developing and improving the formal system for maintaining performance accountability BTW top MGM and shareholders.
Common agency problem: conflict of interest. (2) stakeholders model: Although firm has responsibility for economic success and heath ministration for shareholders, it must also answer to other stakeholders which it interacts with. Managers must the implement the appropriate corporate governance mechanism to promote the development of LET r/s with primary stakeholders, which entail creating governance systems that consider stakeholder welfare in tandem with corporate needs and interests. Greater demand for accountability-y and transparency.
Executive compensation Ethical issue intensity – perceived importance, individual moral intensity, 6 spheres of influence, can be influenced by use of rewards, corporate policies. Individual factors: personal values developed from solicitation, organizational/ social forces can also alter the intent, others: age, gender, experience, education. Organizational: culture, structure, significant others, obedience to authority. Opportunities: rewards and absence of punishment, relates to immediate Job context, eliminated by formal code, policies, can also come from knowledge and experience.
Transformational leadership: characterized by the ability to bring about significant change in both followers and the org – lead changes in org vision, strategy and culture as well as promote innovation in products and technologies differ transactional leadership: focuses on exchanges bedfellows and leaders (1) evolves followers into leaders, (2) elevates concerns of followers from lower physical needs to higher psychological needs, (3) inspires followers to go beyond self interest for good of org, (4) paints vision of desired future state and communicates it in a way which makes the pain of change worth the effort. / inspirational motivation – motivate and inspire followers by providing meaning and challenge to their work, intellectual stimulation – encourage followers to be creative and innovative, to question assumptions, and to look at problems and situations in new ways, individualized inconsideration- pay special attention to followers’ individual needs Charismatic leadership – emotional impact on Pl and inspire them to do more than they normally do.
Differ transformational leadership. Both have followers which wants to identify with them and have great trust in them. But, transformational leadership motivates Pl not Just to follow leader personally but also believe in the need for change, and be willing to make sacrifices for the sake of the vision rather than out of admiration for the leader. Charisma itself cannot be learnt but comes form pursuing activities that leaders have true passion for.
Charismatic leaders source of influence comes from personal characteristics rather than formal position of authority Coalitional leadership – building a coalition of Pl who support the leader’s goals and can help influence others to implement the leaders’ decisions and achieve goals. #1 formal and informal talks with Pl across from to get clear sense of challenges and opportunities and their needs, to find who support/ resist changes and why. #2 visit customers and Otter stakeholders to get their views. #3 develop map for stakeholders buy in #4 break downwardness and promote cross dept, level and vision cooperation.
Power: legitimate, reward, coercive, referent, expert. Followers repose to use of power: compliance resistance commitment Source of leaders power: dependency, control over resources (scarcity, institutions, important) , control over info. Increasing power through politic, leaders frames of reference: structural, human resource, political, symbolic. Political tactics: use rational approach, make Pl like you, rely on rule of reciprocity, develop allies, remember principal of scarcity, extend formal authority with expertise and credibility, ask for what you want.
Power can be abused depending on leader approach to use of power (socialized leaders vs. personalized leaders). Personality A model of personality – extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness to experiences, emotional stability. 2 key personality traits – locus of control, authoritarianism. Values and attitudes – end values, instrumental values, pivotal values, values learnt not inherited and can be changed. Attitude – cognitive, affective behavioral, it also includes self concept, concept of others – Theory x and y.
Social perception and attribution theory – perceptual distortions (stereotyping, halo effect, rejection, perceptual defense), attribution theory – how Pl explain causes of personal characteristics led to behavior, external attribution – something about the situation caused the person’s behavior. 3 factors that influence whether attribution is external/ internal : distinctiveness, consistency, consensus. When vitiating others – tend to overestimate internal factors and underestimate external factors – fundamental attribution error.
When evaluating self, overestimate the contribution of internal factors to their successes and overestimate the contribution of external actors to their failure – self serving bias. Cognitive differences – preferences that are not necessarily rigid, but most Pl tend to have only a few preferred habits of thought, pattern of thought- brain dominance, problem solving styles – 4 pair of attributes to classify Pl into 16 dif personality – introversion vs. extroversion, sensing vs. intuition, thinking vs. feeling, Guiding vs. perceiving.
Mental modes govern how they interpret experiences and how they act in response to Pl and situations assumptions – forms part of mental mode – can be dangerous since Pl tended take them as truth. Changing mental modes – Despite the mental discomfort and sense of disorientation it might cause, leaders must allow their mental models to be challenged and even demolished.. Effective leaders learn to continually question their own beliefs, assumptions and perceptions in order to see things in unconventional ways and meet future challenges. Leaders also encourage others to question the status quo and look for new ideas. ways to develop leader’s mind; (1) independent thinking questioning assumptions and interpreting data and events according to one’s own beliefs, ideas and thinking, rather than pre-established rules r categories defined by others and mindfulness: stay mentally alert and think critically, continuously reevaluating previously learnt ways (2) systematic itching- ability to see the synergy of the world rather than Just the separate elements of system and to learn to reinforce or cog whole system patterns and discern circles of causality (3) openhandedness – aware of pike syndrome as well have beginner’s mind – put aside preconceptions and beliefs so you don’t reject new ideas because of past knowledge. (4) personal mastery – personal visions, facing reality, and holding retrieve tension. (1) Knows and clarify what is mitt to them.
They focus on the end result, and have a clear vision that motivates them and the org, (2) commitment to truth uncovering the mental models that limit and deceive them and are willing to challenge assumptions and ways of doing things, (3) Acknowledging and living with the disparity BTW the truth and the vision is the source of resolve and creativity to move forward and close the gap BTW reality and vision. Emotional intelligence can be learnt and developed in 4 categories: (1) self awareness, understand own motions and accurately assess strength and weaknesses (2) self MGM including adaptability, optimism (3) social awareness, (4) r/ s MGM (include develop powerful vision leering to elite and communicate clearly and convincingly under emotional understanding and influence others in positive ways.
How emotional intelligence relate to effective leadership : (1) repeat and trust of followers when leaders can manage own emotions and display self confidence, (2) leaders who can maintain own emotions serve as role model to help motivate and inspire followers and raise overall o motivation & inspiration & create feelings of unity, (4) leaders who respect followers as whole with feelings and opinions of their own, enhance followers’ self image and worth and help meet their needs to achieve personal goals. Team CEQ: Leaders can build team CEQ by creating norms that supporting emotional development and influence emotions in constructive identity.
Some norms – (1) create strong group identity (2) build trust among members (3) instill a belief among members that they can be effective and succeed as a team. Leading with fear: weaken trust and communication, destroy the opportunity for feedback, blinding hem to reality and denying them the chance of correcting damaging decisions and behavior Leading with love: openness and personal r/s, a respect for diverse viewpoints, emphasis on positive interpersonal r/s. Courage and moral leadership Moral leadership – distinguishing right from wrong and doing right. A leader’s capacity to make moral choices is related to the individual’s level of moral development.
Ethical role models: interpersonal behavior with followers by maintaining good r/s and showing concern for them, basis fairness, ethical actions and self expectations, articulating ethical standards. Ethics: Principles of right induct, Use of reason to find appropriate principles or rules to govern conduct, the “head” matters Morals: how rules of conduct are applied in actual behavior, the “heart” matters Goldberg stage of moral development Four Biases in Moral and Ethical reasoning and action: Implicit prejudice, In-group favoritism, Over-claiming credit, Conflicts of interest Four typical ethical dilemmas: Truth versus Loyalty, Individual versus Community, Short-term versus Long-term e. G. Main, Justice versus Mercy Three principles for resolution of dilemmas: Ends-based thinking (“do what’s best for the greatest number of people”), Rule-based thinking “following the highest principle or duty’), Care-based thinking (“Do what you want others to do to you”) Methods of self protection: moral Justification, euphemistic labeling, displacement/ diffusion of responsibility, disregard/ distortion of consequences, Rationalizing corruption: denial of, responsibility, victim, injury, social weighting, appeal to higher loyalties, metaphor of the ledger. Stage 1- Control – Authoritarian management, Stage 2 – Participation – Participative management, Stage 3 – Empowerment – Stewardship, Stage 4 – Service – Servant Leader – leadership upside down. Stewardship: #1 Reorient towards a partnership assumption – partnership can only hip when power and control shift away from formal leaders to core employees. Partners have right to disagree, be totally honest, not withholding info. The leaders and followers are Jointly responsible for defining vision, purpose and outcomes. #2 Localism decision and power to those closest to the work and the customer (where work gets done).
This means reintegrating the managing and the work, so that everyone is doing some of the core work of the org part of the time. Nobody gets paid simply to plan and manage the work of others. 3 Recognize and reward the value of labor -redistributing wealth by designing compensation so that core workers can make significant gains when they make exceptional contributions. #4 Expect core work teams to build the org – in defining goals, maintain control, changing environment they serve in. Servant leader: 4 basic precepts in Greenflies servant leadership model: #1 Put service before self interest – servant leaders make a conscious effort to use their gifts in the cause of change and growth for others (even if it does not pay of.
The desire to help others takes precedence over the sire to achieve a formal leadership position/ attain power and control over others. #2 Listen first to affirm others – listen and fully understand the problem other face, and affirming his confidence in others. Servant leaders try to figure out the will of the IGRP and then further it however they can. They don’t impose their will on others. #3 Inspire trust by being trustworthy – servant leaders build trust by doing what they say they will do, being honest, giving up control and focus on the wellbeing of others. Servant leaders gain trust because they give everything away- power, control, rewards, info and recognition. Nourish others and help them become whole – servant leaders work to help others find the power of the human spirit and accept their responsibilities which requires an openness and willingness to share in the pain and difficulties of others and making themselves vulnerable to others and be willing to share their own pain and humanity to be close to others. Leadership courage: to accept responsibility, nonconformity, pursuing beyond comfort zone, asking for what you want and saying what you think, fighting for what you believe. 4 ways to find personal courage: believe in higher purpose, draw strength from others, earnest frustration and anger, develop your skills.
Culture visible artifacts 0 expressed values and beliefs which are not observable 0 basic underlying assumptions as the senses (started as expressed vases but became more deeply embedded) Importance of culture – internal integration (develop a collective identity and generate commitment, imprint unwritten rules inside employee’s minds that helps determining behavior that affects org performance) and external adaptation (determines how the org meet goals and deals with outsiders, basic means to accomplish goals). Cultural strength, degree of agreement amongst members on importance of specific values and ways of doing thighs, strong culture onto equals to positive overtime. A strong culture does not ensure success unless it also encourages a healthy adaptation to the external environment. Adaptive culture: Underlying assumption: serves whole org and trusts others. Visible behavior: leaders pay close attention to all their constituencies, esp. customers and initiate change when needed to serve their legitimate interest, even if it entails taking some risks. Culture gap – difference BTW desired and actual values and behaviors
High performance culture – one which encourage adaptation and change by motivating employees, unifying Pl around shared goals and higher mission. Strong adaptive culture have following values: (1) whole is more important than the parts and boundaries are minimized, (2) equality and trust as primary values (3) culture encourages risk taking change and improvement. Cultural leadership: primary way which leaders influence norms and values to build a high performance culture. (1) The cultural leader articulates a vision for the org culture that employees can believe in, (2) The cultural leader heeds the day to day activities (work procedures and
How leaders react to crises and critical incidents, Role modeling, teaching and coaching by leaders, Criteria for allocating rewards and determining status, Criteria for selection, promotion and termination. (selection and solicitation for new and current employees, and daily actions). Secondary mechanism: The organization structure, systems and procedures, Space, buildings and facades, Stories and legends about important events and people, Formal statements of philosophy and policy, symbols, specialized language. Organizational values – decided by looking at external environment and company’s vision and strategy. Dimensions: flexibility/ stability and strategic focus as internal/ external. 1: Adaptability culture (flexible and external) – followers empowered to act freely to meet new needs, leaders actively creative change to respond to changing needs, takes risks. #2: Achievement Culture (stable, external) – clear vision focused on specific targets, serves needs without need for flexibility or rapid change, more results oriented and values competitiveness, personal initiative. #3: Clan culture (flexible, internal) – focus on the involvement and participation of employees to meet changing expectations from the external environment, values meeting needs of org members. Consideration for employees and customers, avoid status difference and promote fairness. 4 Bureaucratic cutler (internal, stable) – consistency orientation which support orderly way of doing biz, follow strict rules so org succeeds by being highly integrated and efficient. Value based leadership – r/s BTW leaders and followers that is based on shared strongly internalized values that are advocated and acted upon by the leader. Leaders can influence ethical values thru personal ethics/ practicing spiritual leadership. Personal ethics of leaders demonstrated are learnt by employees; leaders’ values based on stage of moral development which affects leader’s ability to translate values to behavior. Spiritual values – include values like integrity, humility, and appreciation of employees’ contributions, fair treatment, and personal reflection.
It’s the display of values attitudes and behaviors necessary to intrinsically motivate oneself and others towards a sense of spiritual expression through calling and membership. Leaders can start by creating a vision with broad appeal and high deals, establish a corporate culture to give members sense of identity, and engage in hope/ faith to achieve desired outcomes. It can also reduce negative feelings and conflicts presented in org – such as fear, anger, pride, sense of failure. It also addresses followers high order of needs for membership and self actualization. Leadership diversity. Diversity no longer based on inborn differences, but in all ways Pl differ.
Why want to incorporate diversity: contribute to a firm’s competitive advantage, internal diversity to meet the needs of and build strong connections with diverse customers, Pl can build bet r/s at work when they develop the skills to understand and accept cultural differences, greater org learning and flexibility which leads to strong performance, diversity of thought and perspectives, ideas and experiences for prop solving, creativity and innovation. Challenges minorities faced: (1) ethnocentrism, (2) prejudice, stereotypes and discrimination, (3) unequal expectations, (4) glass ceiling, (5) opportunity gap. Global diversity challenges: (1) understanding the coloratura uncertainty avoidance, individualism vs. collectivism, masculinity vs. femininity (2) evolve cultural intelligence to know how to behave appropriately.
Cultural intelligence: a person’s ability to use reasoning and observation skills to interpret unfamiliar gestures & situations and devise appropriate behavioral response to adapt quickly. 3 components: cognitive, emotional and physical. Cognitive: person’s observational and learning skills and the ability to pick up on clues to understanding Emotional: concerns one self-confidence and self-motivation. A leader has to believe in his ability to understand and assimilate into different cultures, any setbacks only riggers him to work harder. Physical: ability to shift his speech patterns, expressions, and body language to be in tune with Pl from a different culture.
Stage of personal diversity awareness: (1) Defense: perceives differences as threat against one comfortable worldview – result in ethnocentrism/ prejudice, (2) minimizing differences: hides and trivialize cultural differences & focus on similarities among all individuals, (3) acceptance: accepts behavioral differences and underlying differences in value, recognize validity of other ways of thinking and perceiving the world. (4) adaptation: able to impatiens with those of other cultures, able to shift from one cultural perspective to another. Leaders make a genuine attempt to develop policies and practices that are inclusive (equality) rather than exclusive. (5) integration: multicultural attitude – enables one to integrate differences and adapt both cognitively and behaviorally Wars to enhance personal diversity: diversity training – be aware of the assumptions they make and to increase their sensitivity and openness to those who are different, AND then develop diversity skills – learning how to communicate and work effectively in a diverse environment.
Personal qualities for leading diverse Pl: (1) personal, long range vision (to include diverse individuals at all levels) that recognizes and supports a diverse org community, (2) A broad knowledge of the dimensions of diversity and awareness of multicultural issues – puts knowledge to action thru use of inclusive language and show respect for differences, (3) openness to change themselves, (4) Mentoring and empowerment of diverse employees. Ethics and CARS: Moral dilemmas: Pl have a natural tendency to be biased under conditions of ambiguity and these biases can lead to immoral behavior. While most Pl believe that they are ethical in the workplace, most Pl fall far short of self perceived morality. Most common biases: favoring own group, overcharging credit for self, constructing incorrect cause effect r/s. #1 internal r/s: Employees in org often find themselves finding for resources, navigating BTW cliques, coping with unfair treatment from superiors and competing for career advancements. #2: conflict of interest and trade secrets. 3 Privacy: While physical privacy is easier to respect, psychological privacy occurs more often and is potentially more intrusive. It’s hard for mangers to avoid such intrusion as they are responsible for monitoring subordinate When seeking info from employees: info should be directly relevant to the issue at hand, employees must have the opportunity to give consent, and the methods of learning info should be computers transform the way Pl work, live and learn, moral reasoning now deals with transmission of info. Info can be enlightening and empowering but it can also be used for control, power and manipulation. E. G. personalized marketing, Others: pollution, resource depletion, consumer protection, bribery, whistle blowing.