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Organizational Behavior and Leadership

Hershey and Blanchard situational leadership theory differs from other leadership theories most clearly because it focuses . On the followers. ODD What is the path goal theory? Leader must help followers attaining goals and reduce roadblocks to success. Leaders must change behaviors to fit the situation When organized around the Big Five, what Is the most Important trait of effective leaders? Extroversion What is the extent to which a person is likely to have job relationships that are characterized by mutual trust, respect for employees’ ideas, and regard for their feelings?

Consideration What leadership style, identified by House in path-goal theory, leads to greater satisfaction when tasks are ambiguous or stressful than when they are highly structured and well laid out. Directive CICS Management Is about WHAT with complexity while leadership Is about coping with WHAT. Coping Change oho What traits are associated with effective leadership? Organized along the Big Five framework – Extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness to experience, and emotional stability-Extroversion is the most Important trait ODD What Is a mentor?

A senior employee who sponsors and supports a less-experienced employee, called a protog. Acts as a role model. IDГњ What is coaching used for? To improve team member performance What is organizational behavior (B)? Field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward Improving an organization’s effectiveness. The best approach for obtaining knowledge about human behavior is what? Hysteretic What studies behavior as it relates to concerns such as absenteeism, turnover, productivity, and performance. Organizational behavior 000 What behavioral science discipline has made the MOST significant contributions to understanding individual behavior? Psychology What science has helped us understand differences in fundamental values, attitudes, and behavior between people in different countries. Anthropology What does work force diversity mean? That organizations are becoming more heterogeneous in terms of gender, race, and ethnicity.

Robert Katz has identified what three management skills? Technical, human and conceptual Behavior is generally and the systematic study of behavior is a means to making reasonably accurate predictions. Predictable What are three levels of analysis in B? Individual level,group level, to the organization systems level, we add systematically to our understanding of behavior in organizations. What is work force diversity? A heterogeneous mix in terms of race, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, work styles, age, and preferences.

It consists of multinational employees, immigrants, part-timers, and contract employees. The U. S. Workforce will grow increasingly diverse due to increased immigration and birth rates of some racial minorities. How has psychology contributed to the study of organizational behavior? It has expanded the study of leadership effectiveness, training, emotional intelligence, learning, perception, performance appraisals, attitude measurement, work design, and Job stress, and selection techniques. How can leaders facilitate conflict resolution in their organizations?

Problem solving, Subordinate goals, Expansion of resources, Avoidance, Smoothing, Compromise, Authoritative demand, Altering the human variable, Altering situational variables. What is empowerment? Employees’ beliefs in the degree to which they influence their work environment, their competence, the meaningfulness of their Job, and their received autonomy. What is the primary objective of the 360-degree performance evaluation? To pool feedback from all of the employee’s customers. What is the purpose of a performance evaluation? >Making general human resource decisions.

Promotions, transfers, and terminations >alternating training and development needs. Employee skills and competencies >Validating selection and development programs. Employee performance compared to selection evaluation and anticipated performance results of participation in training >Providing feedback to employees. The organization’s view of their current performance Merit pay increases and other rewards How will an e be motivated to perform based a performance evaluation? Performance objectives must be clear. Performance criteria must be related to the job.

Performance must be accurately evaluated. Performance must be properly rewarded. Define Equity Theory. Individuals compare their Job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities. What does a positive organizational culture emphasize? Building on employee strengths, rewards more than it punishes, and emphasizes individual vitality and growth. 000 What are the advantages of a strong organizational culture? 1 . Provides stability to an organization, 2. Eels have the same opinions about the orgy’s mission and values as leaders, 3. He orgy’s core values are both intensely held and widely shared. 4. Should reduce e turnover because it demonstrates high agreement about what the org represents -unanimity of purpose builds cohesiveness, loyalty, and organizational commitment. 5. Less of a need for MGM to be concerned with developing formal rules and erg’s to guide e behavior. 000 What are the key variables to shaping customer-responsive cultures? . The types of employees hired by the organization. 2. Low formalization: the freedom to meet customer service requirements. 3.

Empowering employees with decision-making discretion to please the customer. 4. Good listening skills to understand customer messages. 5. Role clarity that allows service employees to act as “boundary spanners. ” 6. Employees who engage in organizational citizenship behaviors. Culture is most likely to be a liability when . The environment is dynamic What serves to sustain a culture? Selection, colonization, top management Define institutionalizing. When an organization takes on a life of its own, apart from any of its members, becomes valued for itself, and acquires immortality.

What is leadership? The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or set of goals. 000 Define transformational leaders. Leaders who inspire followers to transcend their own self-interests and who are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on followers. Define transactional leaders. Leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. What is charismatic leadership theory? Lowers attribute heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors.

Identify the characteristics of charismatic leaders. They have a vision, they are willing to take personal risks to achieve that vision, they are sensitive to follower needs, and they exhibit extraordinary behaviors What are the characteristics of a Transformational Leader? The 4 “Xi’s” Idealized Influence , Inspirational Motivation, Intellectual Stimulation, and Individualized Consideration Idealized Influence Provides vision and sense of mission, instills pride, gains respect and trust. Inspirational Motivation Communicates high expectations, uses symbols to focus efforts,expresses important purposes in simple ways.

Intellectual Stimulation Promotes intelligence, rationality, and careful problem solving Individualized Consideration Gives personal attention, treats each employee individually, coaches, advises. What are the characteristics of a Transactional Leader? Contingent Reward, Management by Exception (active) , Management by Exception (passive), and Laissez- Fatter Contingent Reward Contracts exchange of rewards for effort, promises rewards for good performance, recognizes accomplishments. Management by Exception (active) Watches and searches for deviations from rules and standards, takes correct action.

Management by Exception (passive) Intervenes only if standards are not met. Laissez-fairer Abdicates responsibilities, avoids making decisions. What are the contingency theories of leadership? All Consider the Situation Fiddler’s Contingency Model Cognitive Resource Theory Hershey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Model Path Goal Theory What are the assumptions underlying the different contingency theory models? Fiddler and Other’s 000 Fiddler Leader’s style is fixed – Task oriented vs.. Relationship oriented 000 Other’s Leader’s style can and should be changed What is the Hershey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory?

A group whose individual efforts result in performance that is greater than the sum of the individual inputs. Potential for an organization to generate greater outputs with no increase in inputs. Goal – Collective performance Synergy -Positive Accountability – Individual and mutual Skills – Complementary Name the 4 most common types of teams in an organization. 1. Problem-solving teams- only make recommendations (5-12 team members) 2. Elf- managed work teams- solve problems but implement solutions and take responsibility for outcomes. 10-15 members) 3 cross-functional teams -employees from about the same hierarchical level but different work areas, who come together to accomplish a task. 4. Virtual teams- use computer technology to unite physically dispersed members and achieve a common goal. 000 Name the 4 key components of effective teams. 1 . Context -adequate resources, effective leadership, a climate of trust, and a performance evaluation and reward system 2. Composition -the ability and personality of team members, allocation of oleos and diversity, size of the team, and members’ preference for teamwork. . Work Design – autonomy, skill variety, task identity, task significance 4. Process – member commitment to a common purpose, establishment of specific team goals, team efficacy, a managed level of conflict, and minimized social loafing. Define synergy. Is an attribute of work teams which results in a level of performance that is greater than the sum of the individual inputs. 000 What is the goal of an effective group process? Maximize Process Gains While Minimizing Process Losses recognize individual contributions.

A company switched from assembly lines to self-managed work teams. What can team members do to improve the synergy and success of their teams? Assign individual roles rather than mutual team roles Define Organizational culture. Refers to a system of shared meaning held by members that distinguishes the organization from other organizations. Name seven primary characteristics seem to capture the essence of an organization’s culture. 1. Innovation and risk taking 2. Attention to detail 3. Outcome orientation. 4. People orientation 5. Team orientation 6. Aggressiveness 7. Stability